Investigation of Viburnum opulus L. Apoptotic Effect on LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell Line



Viburnum opulus, Prostate cancer, Apoptosis


The most common cancer seen in men worldwide is prostate cancer. It ranks second in the deadliest cancer types. Viburnum opulus is a type of tree that produces small red fruits. Shell, fruit, flower and juice of V. opulus are widely used in various fields and traditional medicine. Studies have shown that V. opulus also has an anti-cancer effect. For this purpose, the apoptotic effect of V. opulus was investigated in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were treated with V. opulus extract in a 1-200 µg/mL concentration range. IC50 dose of V. opulus extract was determined by cell viability test XTT. Expressions of genes related to apoptosis after extract application were determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. V. opulus showed the cytotoxic effect on the LNCaP cell line, and differences in the expressions of apoptosis-related genes were observed. Significant increases in BAX, CASP7, CASP8 and P53 expressions showed that the pro-apoptosis pathway was active, while CASP3 expression was significantly decreased. The extrinsic apoptosis pathway of might be effective due to increased CASP7 and CASP8 gene expression. However, the molecular mechanism of apoptotic activity of V. opulus needs to be investigated in more detail.


Baytop, T. (1999). Türkiye’de bitkiler ile tedavi (Geçmişte ve Bugün) (in Turkish), (2nd ed.), Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri.

Chojnacka, K., Owczarek, K., Caban, M., Fichna, J., Sosnowska, J., Redzynia, M., & Lewandowska U. (2019). The impact of extracts from cranberrybush leaves (Viburnum opulus L.) on the growth of human colon cells. Postepy Fitoterapii., 1, 10-17.

Cometa, M. F., Parisi, L., Palmery, M., Meneguz, A., & Tomassini, L. (2009). In vitro relaxant and spasmolytic effects of constituents from Viburnum prunifolium and HPLC quantification of the bioactive isolated iridoids. J. Ethnopharmacol., 123(2), 201–207.

Çam, M. (2005). Determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds by high pressure liquid chromatography in gilaburu (Viburnum opulus) fruit juice consumed in Kayseri region, [Master Thesis], Ege University.

Deng, Y., Li, Y., Yang, F., Zeng, A., Yang, S., Luo, Y., Zhang, Y., Xie, Y., Ye, T., Xia, Y., Yin, W. (2017). The extract from Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel induces apoptosis and impairs metastasis in prostate cancer cells. Biomedicine & Pharmacother., 93, 976-984.

Johnson, W., Tchounwou, P. B., & Yedjou, C. G. (2017). Therapeutic mechanisms of vernonia amygdalina delile in the treatment of prostate cancer. Molecules, 22(10), 1594-1602.

Kajszczak, D., Zakłos-Szyda, M., & Podsędek, A. (2020). Viburnum opulus L.-A Review of Phytochemistry and biological effects. Nutrients, 12(11), 3398.

Kraujalyt, V., Leitner, E., & Venskutonis, R. (2012). Chemical and sensory characterization of aroma of Viburnum opulus fruits by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography olfactometry. Food Chem., 132(2), 717–723.

Orhan, İ. E., Altun, M. L., Yılmaz, B. S., & Saltan, G. (2011). Anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant assets of the major components (salicin, amentoflavone, and chlorogenic acid) and the extracts of Viburnum opulus and Viburnum lantana and their total phenol and flavonoid contents. J. Med. Food., 14(4), 434–440.

Sarıözkan, S., Türk, G., Eken, A., Bayram, L. Ç., Baldemir, A., & Doğan, G. (2017). Gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L.) fruit extract alleviates testis and sperm damages induced by taxane-based chemotherapeutics. Biomed. Pharmacother., 95, 1284-1294.

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., & Jemal A. (2019). Cancer Statistics. CA: Cancer. J. Clin., 69(1), 7-34.

Sever Yılmaz, B., Çitoğlu, G. S., & Altun, M. L. (2006). Hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic activity of Viburnum lantana L. Turk J. Pharm. Sci., 3(3), 151–165.

Sezik, E., Yeşilada, E., Honda, G., Takaishi, Y., Takeda, Y., & Tanaka, T. (2001). Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in Central Anatolia. J. Ethnopharmacol., 75(2-3), 95–115.

Szliszka, E., Czuba, Z. P., Bronikowska, J., Mertas, A., Paradysz, A., & Krol, W. (2011). Ethanolic extract of propolis augments TRAIL induced apoptotic death in prostate cancer cells. J. Evid. Based Complementary Altern. Med., 2011, 535172.

Turan, İ., Demir, S., Kilinç, K., Burnaz, N. A., Yaman, S. O., Akbulut, K., Mentese, A., Aliyazicioglu, Y., & Deger, O. (2017). Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells. Saudi Pharm. J., 25, 241–248.

Ulger, H., Ertekin, T., & Karaca, O. (2013). Influence of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus) juice on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)- induced colon cancer. Toxicol. Ind. Health., 29(9), 824–829.

Zakłos-szyda, M., & Pawlik, N. (2019). The influence of Viburnum opulus polyphenolic compounds on metabolic activity and migration of Hela and MCF cells. Acta Innov., 2300, 33-42. Innovations.31.4




How to Cite

Gok, O., Secer Celik, F., Eroglu Gunes , C., & Kurar, E. (2023). Investigation of Viburnum opulus L. Apoptotic Effect on LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cell Line. Natural Products and Biotechnology, 3(1), 16–22. Retrieved from



Research Article